Commonly called “black lists”, lists of corporate and individual persons responsible of violations of administrative or criminal legislation are compiled and published by ministries and commissions of the State Council, and by provincial governments.
Blacklisting is neither new, not an exclusively Chinese phenomenon.
Blacklisting is a governance technique adopted cross-jurisdictionally and cross-contextually.
In Western countries, persons who default on their loan or bill payments are included in black lists maintained by private companies, or by the public administration (as in Scandinavian countries). In the majority cases, individuals are unable to access the black lists maintained by private companies, or to know what information the public administration has collected about them. They may not even be aware they are on the list, until the moment when they seek the services provided by private companies, or by the public administration.
What follows is a directory of
- 22 social credit black lists compiled and published by ministries and commissions of the People’s Republic of China.
- social black lists compiled and published by each one of China’s provinces
- 38 social credit black lists compiled and published by the cities where the black list system has been adopted
All the black lists, and/or decisions are in Chinese only.
The directory does include judicial organs, ministries and commissions responsible for managing those sectors of the public administration more closely related to the domestic and transanational economic system.
The directory does not include ministries, and other institutions responsible for public order.