Category Archives: CPC

Chinese Communist Party Regulations on Openness in Party Affairs (For Trial Implementation)

The text of the Chinese Communist Party Regulations on Openness in Party Affairs was published on December 25, 2017. What follows is a full text English translation of this extremely important document.

Unofficial Translation

Chinese Communist Party Regulations on Openness in Party Affairs

(For Trial Implementation)

Chapter I. General Principles

Article 1. The Present Regulations are enacted according to the Constitution of the Communist Party of China, in order to implement the spirit of the 19th Party Congress; promote the overall development of comprehensively strictly ruling the Party; strengthen and standardize openness in Party affairs; develop democracy within the Party; strengthen supervision within the Party; allow all Party members to better understand Party affairs and participate in them; mobilize and organize the People’s masses to implement the Party’s theory, line, and policy; improve the Party governing capability and level of leadership.

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Regulations of the Communist Party of China on Enacting Party Laws and Regulations

Editor’s Note

The dual structure of the Chinese polity, with the Party as the core political centre and the state as its administrative/operational part, is perhaps nowhere more visible than in the system of rules and regulations of the Chinese Communist Party.

The regulatory power of the CCP has been overlooked both by China watchers and China lawyers. While the former group may find little value in the technicalities involved in how the Party manages and governs itself, the latter group prefers approaches grounded in state-centred conceptions of regulation.

Regulations of the Chinese Communist Party pose the added conceptual difficulty of cutting across the divides among areas of legal practice  lawyers in civil and common law jurisdictions are familiar with. Next, comes the question of where the regulatory authority of the Party originates from.

The answer to this question is contained in the Regulations of the Communist Party of China on Enacting Party Laws and Regulations.


Unofficial Translation

Regulations of the Communist Party of China on Enacting Party Laws and Regulations

Central Document no. 5 [2012] no. 5

Chapter I. General Principles

Article 1. The Present Regulations are enacted on the basis of the Constitution of the Communist Party of China, in order to standardize the work of enacting Party laws and regulations, establish and improve the system of Party laws and regulations, raise the level of scientific construction of the Party.

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Communist Party of China Regulations on Party Groups (For Trial Implementation)

Editor’s Note

In a short essay published by the China Policy Institute at the University of Nottingham on December 11, I observed how corporate social responsibility and corporate governance are two key dimensions of  “social credit”. I further observed how the use of lists, rankings, KPIs, standards, punishment-and-reward systems is neither new, nor exclusive to China.

Aside from these commonalities, differences exist between approaches to CSR in “the West”, and those followed in the PRC. One of the biggest differences involves the management and control of CSR efforts in China by the centre of political authority and legitimacy, and their exercize through multi-stakeholder initiatives involving state and private actors.

This approach to CSR is the most natural consequence of the relationship between Party and State in China. In fact, the role of the Party in driving CSR initiatives has been acknowledged by the 2008 SASAC Guidelines on Corporate Social Responsibility, by article 19 of the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China, and by several other legal documents available on this website.

Corporate social responsibility approaches and initiatives are shaped and influenced by contextual factors. A more nuanced understanding of CSR in China therefore, ought to be premised on deeper politological, economic, sociological analyses of the structural elements and circumstances forming the basic setting of CSR.

One of these structural elements – very well known to China watchers but somewhat ignored by scholars of CSR – is given by Party groups. Established in private and public enterprises (besides NGOs, educational institutions, state organs etc.) Party groups have been playing a fundamental role in promoting CSR efforts in private enterprises.

Reflecting the dual structure of the Chinese polity, these organizations are regulated not by the state law, but by the Chinese Communist Party. One of the most important regulations – with on-going annotations and references – is presented below.


Unofficial Translation

Communist Party of China Regulations on Party Groups (For Trial Implementation)

16 June 2017

Chapter I. General Principles

Article 1. The Present Regulations are enacted in accordance with the “Constitution of the Communist Party of China”, to further regulate the work of Party groups, strengthen and improve Party leadership, raise the Party’s governing capability, and give full play to the core leadership role of the Party in being in full control of the overall situation, and in coordinating all entities.

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(Excerpted) Opinions on Reforming the Management System of Social Organizations and Promoting Their Healthy and Orderly Development

《关于改革社会组织管理制度促进社会组织健康有序发展的意见》主要内容。

为深入贯彻党的十八大和十八届二中、三中、四中、五中全会精神,进一步加强社会组织建设,激发社会组织活力,现就改革社会组织管理制度、促进社会组织健康有序发展提出以下意见。

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State Council Opinions on Strengthening and Improving the Supervision of Enterprise State Assets and Preventing Their Loss

国务院办公厅关于加强和改进企业国有资产监督防止国有资产流失的意见

国办发〔2015〕79号

各省、自治区、直辖市人民政府,国务院各部委、各直属机构:
  我国企业国有资产是全体人民的共同财富,保障国有资产安全、防止国有资产流失,是全面建成小康社会、实现全体人民共同富裕的必然要求。改革开放以来,我国国有经济不断发展壮大,国有企业市场活力普遍增强、效率显著提高,企业国有资产监管工作取得积极进展和明显成效。但与此同时,一些国有企业逐渐暴露出管理不规范、内部人控制严重、企业领导人员权力缺乏制约、腐败案件多有发生等问题,企业国有资产监督工作中多头监督、重复监督和监督不到位的现象也日益突出。为贯彻落实中央关于深化国有企业改革的有关部署,切实加强和改进企业国有资产监督、防止国有资产流失,经国务院同意,现提出以下意见。

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Central Committee, State Council Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Reform of Service Units

中共中央 国务院关于分类推进事业单位改革的指导意见

(二〇一一年三月二十三日)

在清理规范基础上,按照社会功能将现有事业单位划分为三个类别。对承担行政职能的,逐步将其行政职能划归行政机构或转为行政机构;对从事生产经营活动的,逐步将其转为企业;对从事公益服务的,继续将其保留在事业单位序列、强化其公益属性

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Central Committee Decision on Some Major Issues in Strengthening and Improving Party Building in the New Situation

中共中央关于加强和改进新形势下党的建设若干重大问题的决定
 (2009年9月18日中国共产党第十七届中央委员会第四次全体会议通过)

 中国共产党第十七届中央委员会第四次全体会议,全面分析形势和任务,认为在新中国成立六十周年之际,进一步研究和部署以改革创新精神推进党的建设新的伟大工程,对于全面贯彻党的十七大精神,深入贯彻落实科学发展观,有效应对国际金融危机冲击、保持经济平稳较快发展,夺取全面建设小康社会新胜利、开创中国特色社会主义事业新局面,具有重大而深远的意义。全会就加强和改进新形势下党的建设若干重大问题作出如下决定。

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Opinions on Strengthening Party Building in Individual, Private and Other Non-Public Economic Organizations (For Trial Implementation)

关于在个体和私营等非公有制经济组织中加强党的建设工作的意见(试行)

(中共中央组织部2000年9月13日印发)

 为了加强非公有制经济组织中党的建设,促进非公有制经济健康发展,根据《中国共产党章程》,结合当前实际情况,提出以下意见:

  一、充分认识加强非公有制经济组织党建工作的重要性和紧迫性

  党的十五大明确提出,公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展,是我国社会主义初级阶段的一项基本经济制度。改革开放以来,个体、私营等非公有制经济迅速发展,已经成为我国社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分。据统计,目前全国已有私营企业近158万家,个体工商户3160多万户,从业人员约1.3亿人。非公有制企业在活跃城乡经济、满足社会多方面需要、增加就业、促进国民经济发展等方面发挥着重要的作用。

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Opinion on Establishing a Leadership Groups and Leading Cadres’ Evaluation and Assessment Mechanism to Promote Scientific Development

关于建立促进科学发展的领导班子和领导干部考核评价机制的意见

为着力构建有利于科学发展的体制机制,进一步推进干部工作科学化、民主化、制度化,按照《中共中央办公厅印发〈关于建立促进科学发展的党政领导班子和领导干部考核评价机制的意见〉的通知》(中办发〔2009〕30号)要求,现就建立促进科学发展的领导班子和领导干部(含市属国有企业领导班子和企业负责人)考核评价机制,提出以下意见。

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