Category Archives: Translations

NDRC: Requirements Related to Credit Mentioned Several Times in Report to the 19th Congress

As the 19th Congress of the CCP opens in Beijing, international observers are parsing and summarizing Xi Jinping’s work report. In the meantime, the National Development and Reform Commission has published an article excerpting sections of the work report relevant to social credit.

Requirements Related to Credit Mentioned Several Times in Report to the 19th Congress.

On October 18, the 19th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party opened in the Great Hall of the People, in Beijing. Xi Jinping delivered the work report to the 19th Congress, on behalf of the 18th Central Committee.

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Notice on Conducting the 10th Round of Enterprises Credit Rating Evaluation

Notice on Conducting the 10th Round of Enterprises Credit Rating Evaluation by the

China Association of Environmental Protection Industry

CAEPI Notice (2017) no.153

To all member units, to all provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities), to all professional committees of the China Association of Environmental Protection Industry:

Since 2011, the China Association of Environmental Protection Industry has already completed nine rounds of evaluation, it has been strongly supported by relevant departments, it has received the unanimous praise of its member units, its evaluation results have been widely accepted by the market, and it has strongly promoted the creation of a culture of integrity in the environmental protection industry, promoting the construction of a better level of industry credit. Following research, our Association has decided to conduct the 10th round of evaluation of enterprises’ credit rating. Please take note of specific matters as follows:

I. Requirements for Enterprises Applying for the Evaluation

1. Enterprises participating to the evaluation for the first time shall be members of the China Association of Environmental Protection Industry. They shall have been established for three years, they must have reported profits for three years, they shall not have closed down or stopped their business operations, and they shall not take part to credit rating evaluation by other industry associations.

2. Enterprises that have already participated in credit rating evaluation by our Association shall file a new application, according to the present Notice, if their certificate has expired.

II. Content of the evaluation, and of rating

Enterprise credit rating evaluation involves the comprehensive assessment of the five aspects of enterprise credit of overall quality, financial status, level of management, competitiveness, and social credit. The credit rating of the enterprise is determined according to the results of the evaluation, in three rankings – A, B, C and nine levels – AAA, AA, A, BBB, BB, B, CCC, CC, C.

III. Procedures for participating to the evaluation

The present round of evaluation is conducted on a voluntary basis, and evaluation is voluntary requested by enterprises.

1. Application

Enterprises requesting to participate in the present round of enterprise credit rating evaluation shall fill out the “China Association of Environmental Protection Industry Enterprises Credit Rating Evaluation Application Form” (Annex 1), and send the application form, with their official seal, to the recommending unit. Recommending units may be the enterprise’s provincial chapter of the China Association of Environmental Protection Industry, or one of the professional committees of the China Association of Environmental Protection Industry.

2. Recommendation

Recommending units shall fill out the “China Association of Environmental Protection Industry Credit Rating Evaluation Recommendation Form for Local Chapters or Professional Committees” (annex 2), and summarize it to form the “List of Enterprises Recommended for Credit Rating Evaluation by the China Association of Environmental Protection Industry from its Local Chapters or Professional Committees” (annex 3), add their official seal, and send the forms to our Assication by 10 November 2017.

3. Declaration

Enterprises that have received a recommendation shall fill out the “Declaration on the China Association of Environmental Protection Industry Credit Rating Evaluation” (annex 4), and send the declaration together with relevant supporting documents in two paper copies to our Association by 24 November 2017, and send an electronic version to the designated email.

4. Evaluation, publicity, and release of the results

After receiving the enterprise application, our credit rating office will conduct the enterprise credit evaluation according to the “audit-preliminary review-disclosure-final review-filing-award-annual review” procedure, publicize and release the evaluation results on the website of the China Association of Environmental Protection Industry ( After the release, our Association shall award bronze plaques, and certificates to enterprises that have obtained a credit rating of A and above.

5. Period of Validity of the Evaluation

The period of validity of the corporate credit rating evaluation bronze plaques, and of the certificates, is of three years. Where an enterprise needs to apply for a higher level of credit rating, it may do so within their validy period.

IV. Evaluation Fees

1. No fee shall be collected from enterprises for the evaluation. Our Association shall cover the expenditures for the experts needed to perform the credit evaluation, the certificates, and the bronze plaques.

2. Where an on-site inspection is needed in order to verify the situation of an enterprise, relevant expenditures shall be covered by the enterprise.

V. Contact Information

Contact persons: 赵子骁、王妍

Tel: 010-51555190

Fax: 010-51555028

E-mail: xinyongpingjia[at]qq. com

Contact Address: 北京市西城区扣钟北里甲4楼协会信息部

Postal code: 100037

An electronic version of the present Notice and its annexes can be downloaded from the website


1. China Association of Environmental Protection Industry Enterprises Credit Rating Evaluation Application Form

2. Credit Rating Evaluation Recommentation Form

3. List of Enterprises Recommended for Credit Rating Evaluation

4. Declaration on the China Association of Environmental Protection Industry Enterprises Credit Rating Evaluation

China Association of Environmental Protection Industry

10 October 2017

New ‘Blacklisting Platform’ Launched [Changes in Social Credit and the 19th CCP Congress – 5]

Only eight days before the 19th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, the People’s Daily has published an article extolling the virtues of a little known (until today) public project that has been going on in Jiangxi Province.

The project involves the creation of a credit platform managed by local Party organs, the judiciary, banking supervision organs, and the media.

To promote the nation-wide adoption of this platform, the Central Propaganda Department, the SPC, CRBC have issued a notice on ‘Creating and Improving a Platform to Expose Persons Subject to Enforcement for Breaches of Trust’. At the moment of writing the full text of the Notice does not yet seem to be available.

Given the timing of its announcement, this is an important development. The article follows. More comments will be posted once the full text of the Notice becomes available.

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Social Credit and the 19th CCP Congress. Article – Privacy protection in the age of big data

Information security problems are becoming a hidden danger

Building a privacy protection security wall in the age of big data

Meng Wei

People’s Daily (October 10, 2017)

In the contemporary era, big data, its use and developement, are a resource government, enterprises and individuals scramble for.With the development of big data technology, data mining, integration and exchange are more and more convenient, and the knowledge and use of personal information by some enterprise is becoming deeper and deeper.A large number of personal information is stored, produced, used, exchanged on the internet. On the one hand this facilitates people’s lives, but on the other hand, a large-scale, deep violation of privacy becomes a possibility. The sale of records of personal location, which happened in recent years, the theft of information about one’s list of friends, leakages of electronic business data, the flooding of internet fora with personal data and other similar phenomena show that information security problems in the development and use of big data have become a hidden danger.

Big data technology can extracts valuable practical information and knowledge from a vast sea of incomplete and non-determinate information resources through their classification, clustering, regression analysis, association rules and other algorithms.But the use of this technology will also cause information security problems.At the different stages of data storage, processing and transmission, people’s words and deeds may be controlled and used by others, in their unawareness.The precision marketing so highly praised by commercial enterprises and the advertising industry is just the integration of online and offline big data about users’ interests and hobbies, behaviors, habits and other information that is collected and then used to form a precise positioning of the user, in order to push them to purchase products.


Information security threats in the age of big data do not just come from leaking personal information that is then grabbed and recorded. In fact, the deep integration among big data and cloud computing, the internet of things and other technologies is such as to allow to link machines, objects, people, services and other elements, ed establish links among seemingly unrelated objects through computing, analyses, production and other methods, and on this basis make predictions about people’s life conditions and mode of behavior. In addition, the development of big data and related technologies has also made the means to violate privacy more diverse and covert, which makes it difficult to identify parties responsible for violations of privacy.Because information is constantly downloaded, stored, arranged, disseminated through the internet through all kinds of sharing and commercial transactions, those responsible for violations morph from individuals to a vague group, and the specific tortious liability is difficult to trace.


The lack of strict and uniform standards and supervision of the collection, storage, management and use of personal information is an important reason causing the frequent occurrence of personal privacy incidents. For example, clear provisions on what kind of information can be collected by which agencies, when and where information can be disclosed, retained and used, and how long should the information be used for, are currently lacking.This leads personal information security having to rely to a large extent on the self-regulation of enterprises and other information users, with binding effects that are obviously limited


Information security in the era of big data has become an important issue in the governance of the internet.In practice, a relatively effective solution would be strengthening legislation and protecting citizens’ basic information rights according to the law from new technologies.At present, our country has promulgated dozens of laws and regulations to protect citizen’s personal information security, and the criminal law also has relevant punishment clauses.However, laws and regulations on the computer firms, and on Weibo, Wechat and Sohu [“The Two Wei and the One Duan”] and other organizations conducting a large-scale collection of personal information have an insufficient binding force.Therefore, it is urgent to strengthen the legal regulation and supervision of personal information collection, storage and use.


In addition to strengthening legislation, the protection of personal information security should be vigorously pursued in other areas.For example, industry organizations related to big data having the advantage of a timely and highly efficient perception of market development dynamics should strengthen self-regulation within the industry, formulate industry codes of self-regulation on privacy certification rules, and technical protection rules, thus binding the conduct of enterprises. Then, we should promote the regulation of data use for the whole of society, and protect personal information security beginning with the precision of data processing, the manual scraping of data, data cycle protection, the special protection of private data.At the same time, we should also raise citizens’ awareness of personal information security protection according to the law, promote a moderate use of personal information, and evade the information security risks brought about by the development of big data technology.

(Researcher, Institute of Journalism and Communication, CASS)

Zhejiang Province Regulations on Managing Public Credit Information

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 – General Principles

Chapter 2 – Information Collection and Disclosure

Chapter 3 – Incentives and Punishments

Chapter 4 – Protecting the Rights and Interests of Information Subjects

Chapter 5 – Legal Responsibility

Chapter 6 – Supplementary Provisions

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[Social Credit and the 19th CCP Congress (2)] People’s Daily: One Should Not Let Algorithms Determine Content

One Should Not Let Algorithms Determine Content

Xuan Yan

People’s Daily, October 5, 2017, p. 4

With the advent of big data and the wide application of artificial intelligence, some commercial websites, mobile news clients, including live broadcasting platforms, browsers, internet search engines, audio-visual software, and so on, are using algorithms to “read minds”, to tailor information to the user, and to create a new personalized reading experience. The acquisition of information has changed from the model of “finding a needle in a haystack” to the model of “individual customization”. However, technology is often a cold two-edged sword. In the weighing of values and interests, so-called algorithms have become the standard weight of interests. Everything revolves around the traffic volumes of websites, the number of clicks, reposts are blindly followed, clickbait headlines are spreading uncontrolled, while the value orientation is deviating, and content has been reduced to an appendage.

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Changes in Social Credit and the 19th CCP Congress (1)

While the 19th Congress of the CCP is less than a month away, a debate tracing the possible future trajectories of social credit has already started, and it is focussing on local legislation.

This far, local legislation on social credit has been adopted by Shanghai Municipality, by Hubei, Hebei, Zhejiang, Shaanxi Province, and Shenzhen. While each one of these pieces of legislation is important in its own respect, the Shanghai social credit regulations play a unique role in driving change in social credit. The first Chinese city to introduce a credit rating system, since 2000 Shanghai has been shaping national trends in social credit.

Comments on the Shanghai social credit regulations – which went into effect yesterday – have been produced by Professor Lin Yu (Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences), and published on the latest issue of The Monthly Magazine of Shanghai People’s Congress (Shanghai Renda Yuekan). To enable readers to form an independent opinion on ongoing trends, the full translation of the article is available below. The original article can be found here.

The article provides a window into a little-known domestic debate on social credit. It lets all those with a stake in social credit understand how social credit is on the brink of change.

Change is always dense with possibilities. At the moment, there are signs that “social credit” may be morphing into a more sophisticated policy, designed to govern economic actors through big data management. While it is not possible to predict what shape and direction this process will take, one thing is certain.

Only those with the knowledge and skills needed to read and comprehend the ‘signals’ coming from within China will be able to understand possible future impacts on their activities, and on their rating. Ignoring upcoming changes or dismissing them as meaningless will entail significant risks.

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MOU on the Joint Punishment of Listed Companies Engaging in Misconduct or Breaches of Trust

Memorandum of Understanding on the Joint Punishment of Subjects of Liability of Listed Companies Who Engage in Misconduct or Breaches of Trust

In order to comprehensively implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress, and of the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, Plenums, to implement the requests of praising integrity and punishing breaches of trust, posed by such documents as the “State Council Opinions on Promoting Safe Competition and Safeguarding the Normal Order of the Market” (State Council Document no. 20 [2013]), the “State Council Notice Issuing the Planning Outline on the Construction of a Social Credit System (2014-2020)” (State Council Document no. 21 [2014], the “State Council General Office Notice on Further Strengthening the Protecton of the Rights and Interests of Small and Medium-Sized Investors in Capital Markets (State Council Document no. 110 [2013]), the Development and Reform Commission, the SFC, the People’s Bank, the Central Spiritual Civilization Office, the Supreme People’s Court, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Commerce, SASAC, the General Administration of Customs, the General Administration of Taxation, the General Administration of Industry and Commerce, AQSIQ, the China Food and Drug Administration, the Central Leading Group for Cyberspace Affairs, CBRC, the Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission, the Foreign Exchange Bureau, the National Federation of Trade Unions, on the basis of relevant laws and regulations, rules and normative documents, have reached the following unanimous opinion on the joint punishment of listed companies and related institutions and their personnel who engage in misconduct or breaches of trust.

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Building the Party’s Governing Capability: Walking the Internet Mass Line in the New Era

Building the Party’s Governing Capability:

Walking the Internet Mass Line in the New Era

August 23, 2017. 11:31:27 – Source: Hongqi Wengao – Author: Nie Mingsheng

Following the development and application of network media technology, information transmission chains and action communication models based on mobile phones, SMS, blogs, Weibo, Weixin and app clients are deeply changing the traditional political ecology and the operational logic of real society. “Digital survival” in the Internet era has opened up entirely new avenues of participation in governance for the people (minqun). It has started a new model of public governance where questions are asked to government, politics is discussed and reasoned about through the Internet. At the same time, the “largest variable” of the Internet brings entirely new challenges to the ruling environment and to the methods of rule. During the Network Security and Informatization Work Symposium, General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed that: “Party institutions and leading cadres at all levels must learn to follow the mass line through the Internet, often use the Internet to understand what the masses think, collect good ideas and good suggestions, actively respond to netizens’ concerns, solve their doubts and clear-up confusion. Therefore, in the new era walking the mass line through the Internet, constantly innovating ruling ideas, ruling modes and methods, earnestly strengthening the construction of the Internet governing capability have become a strategic choice to push forward the construction of the Party’s governing capability.

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Provisional Measures on Managing the Directory of Enterprises With Abnormal Operations

Decree of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce

No. 68

  The Provisional Measures on Managing the Directory of Enterprises With Abnormal Operations have been reviewed and approved by the State Administration for Industry and Commerce. They are hereby published, and will enter into force on October 1, 2014.

Zhang Mao, Director

19 August 2014

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